• New York State Mandate for School Libraries

    Library Media Programs:

    Information Fluency Continuum (IFC)


    New York State Education Regulations mandate that every school will have a school library.


    Pursuant to Section 207 of the Education Law Sections 91.1 and 91.2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education are repealed and new Sections 91.1 and 91.2 are added, effective February 18, 1974, to read as follows:

    Section 91.1 School Libraries.

    A school library shall be established and maintained in each school.

    The library in each elementary and secondary school shall meet the needs of the pupils, and shall provide an adequate complement to the instructional program in the various areas of the curriculum.


    The library fosters a community of learning and literacy that leads to high academic

    achievement, independent reading and learning, and collaboration throughout the school.


    The mission of the library program is to support and provoke the intellectual, social, and personal development of all students by:

    • Providing physical and intellectual access to information in a warm, stimulating, and safe environment.
    • Providing instruction, learning strategies, and practice in using ideas and information for effective learning.
    • Integrating the library program throughout every students' education through collaboration and advocacy.


    Students are motivated and independent learners.

    Students successfully employ information literacy, technology, and critical thinking skills in subject-area learning experiences.

    Students are engaged in independent reading and inquiry-based learning.

    The library is a powerful intellectual and social space where students and teachers gather ideas, exchange points of view, and learn together.

    Students and teachers have access to certified school library media specialists.

    Students have equitable access to the library and its resources.

    The library provides access to high-quality resources in a variety of formats that support curricular and instructional goals and respond to diverse student needs and interests.

    The library facility is welcoming, with a climate conducive to individual and shared learning.

    Current technology is available and operable to support multiple learning experiences in the library and remote access to library resources.

    The library program supports a culture of literacy throughout the school.

    Teachers integrate resources and information-literacy skills into every classroom.

    Teachers collaborate with the librarian and other teachers to optimize instruction and curriculum design.

    The library fosters a professional learning community.

    Teachers, principals, and librarians engage in ongoing professional development.

    Librarians facilitate professional dialogue and networking among teachers, principals, and other librarians to support continuous improvement of practice.


    Collaboration is an essential building block for effective school library media programs. Library media specialists can build a culture of collaboration by actively engaging students, teachers, administrators, and parents in developing the resources and programs that meet the needs of the school community.

    Collaboration has the potential to impact student learning throughout a school, as described in Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning:

    "Effective collaboration . . . helps to create a vibrant and engaged community of learners, strengthens the whole school program as well as the library media program, and develops support for the school library media program throughout the whole school."

    Although the implementation of collaboration will vary according to local situations, certain guiding principles provide a solid foundation and vision for all collaborative processes in school libraries:

    A Collaborative Library Program responds to teacher needs at many levels, from simply exchanging information to co-planning and co-teaching instructional units.

    A Collaborative Library Program integrates resources and the teaching of information literacy into every classroom of the school.

    A Collaborative Library Program integrates the use of technology for learning and the teaching of technology skills.

    A Collaborative Library Program fosters a school-wide community of literacy.

    A Collaborative Library Program impacts student motivation and achievement.

    A Collaborative Library Program builds strong relationships with all members of the

    school community: teachers, administrators, students, and parents.

    Collaborative Library Program builds partnerships with organizations and individualsoutside the school: public libraries, community organizations, community members, and government agencies


    National standards (Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning) and research outline a complex role for school librarians. Responsibilities include the following tasks:

    Collaborative Planning

    Collaborates with teachers to plan and implement instructional units that integrate use of the library with classroom curriculum.

    Documents collaboration with teachers.

    Participates in school, department, and grade-level curriculum development.

    Provides teachers with print and non-print resources related to specific units upon

    request and proactively reaches out to teachers to support their instruction.

    Facilitates collaboration among classroom teachers.

    Collaborates with other educators (coaches, technology specialists) as appropriate.

    Integrated, Collaborative Teaching

    Shares responsibility with teachers for integrating inquiry, information literacy and technology skills into school curriculum.

    Helps structure student assignments for deeper thinking and research.

    Teaches collaboratively with classroom teachers whenever possible.

    Develops and implements reading initiatives to motivate and engage each student in independent reading.

    Information Fluency Curriculum

    Leads the school in developing a plan for integration of information fluency skills throughout the grades and subject areas.

    Documents the teaching of information fluency skills to ensure that all students have equitable opportunities to develop and practice information fluency.

    Provides professional development to teachers to investigate how technology and information skills can support curriculum and instruction.


    Collection Aligned to Curriculum and Student Needs

    Establishes, maintains and updates an automated catalog.

    Assesses student and teacher needs and interests.

    Maintains running list or suggestion box for teachers and students to request materials.

    Assesses connections between classroom collections and the library.

    Conducts ongoing collection analysis and development, regularly discarding and adding materials in light of the assessed needs.

    Continuously reviews professional publications to keep up-to-date on current print and non print resources.

    Subscribes to online databases and other electronic resources.

    Develops and maintains relationships with book jobbers and vendors.


    Ensures that the library has sufficient working computers connected to the Internet and appropriate software.

    Stays up-to-date on the latest technologies and their use for teaching and learning.

    Trains teachers and shares best practices in integrating technology into instruction.

    Integrates the library into the school's technology plan.

    Communicates to students and faculty the ethical and safe use of technology.

    Physical Environment /Facilities

    Organizes the library in logical Dewey Decimal System order for ease of access to resources.

    Arranges the library for variety of uses by large groups, small groups, and individuals.

    Enhances usage of the library through clear signage and designation of areas for specific activities (storytelling, research, technology use, etc.).

    Maintains an orderly environment.

    Facilitates redesign of the library space when the opportunity arises.

    Flexible, Open, Extended, and Equitable Access

    Develops a scheduling policy that facilitates open and flexible access as well as strong instructional use.

    Schedules library use and posts current library schedule weekly.

    Provides open access time every day for students to check out resources.

    Ensures that all students have public library cards so they can access resources of public library.

    Advocates for extended library hours (before and after school, Saturday, summer).

    Use of Resources and Technology

    Maintains fair and consistent circulation and use policies.

    Promotes use of library to teachers, students, and parents to ensure that the library is a vital and active center of learning for the whole school.